Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials1–3

Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Bess Dawson-Hughes, John A Baron, Peter Burckhardt, Ruifeng Li, Donna Spiegelman,

Bonny Specker, John E Orav, John B Wong, Hannes B Staehelin, Eilis O’Reilly, Douglas P Kiel, and Walter C Willett



Background: The role of total calcium intake in the prevention of hip fracture risk has not been well established.

Conclusions: Pooled results from prospective cohort studies suggest that calcium intake is not significantly associated with hip fracture risk in women or men. Pooled results from randomized controlled trials show no reduction in hip fracture risk with calcium supplementation, and an increased risk is possible. For any non-vertebral fractures, there was a neutral effect in the randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1780 –90.